Eleanora I. Robbins (Norrie) Ph.D., Biogeologist – San Diego, Ca.

Ph.D., 1982 Pennsylvania State University

Active Pollution Detective

U.S. Geological Survey–retired 2001
San Diego State Univ. Dept. Geological Sciences–retired 2015

The research career of Dr. Robbins has focused on many issues that create environmental pollution.  Now retired, she teaches outdoors-related science to children living on Indian reservations, and volunteers with the San Diego River Park Foundation to monitor the health of the San Diego River.

email: norrierobbins@cox.net


Robbins is a biogeologist who has published her findings in the fields of palynology, paleoecology, and microbial ecology. Her most recent work is on microbial precipitation of metals from natural sources, and coal- and metal-mine discharge. http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/Norriemicrobes.html.


Anderson, J.E. and Robbins, E.I., 1998, Spectral reflectance and detection of iron-oxide precipitates associated with acidic mine drainage, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64:1201-1208.

Brant, D.L., Ziemkiewicz, P.F., and Robbins, E.I., 1999, Passive removal of manganese from acid mine drainage at the Shade mining site, Somerset County, Penna. (USA), Sudbury ë99, Mining and the Environment II, 3:1241-1249.

Gross, Sabine and Robbins, E.I., 2000, Acidophilic and acid-tolerant fungi and yeasts, Hydrobiologia, 433:91-109.

Jiang, DeXin and Robbins, E.I., 2000, Quaternary palynofloras and paleoclimate of the Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, Northwestern China, Palynology, 24:95-112.

Lopez, D.L., Overly, Bryan, Robbins, E.I., and Carroll, Kenneth, 1999, The role of flow regime on the chemical evolution of acidic waters discharged from an abandoned underground coal mine, Sudbury ë99, Mining and the Environment II, 1:89-98.

Robbins, E.I., 1998, Historical overview and future directions of microbial role in the acidic coal mine drainage system: Proceedings, 15th Annual American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation Meeting, St. Louis, MO, p.174-191.

Robbins, E.I., 1998, The JIMES expedition to Santorini, Greece: Iron bacteria and educational outreach at the Precambrian iron formation analog, Wat on Earth (Newsletter of University of Waterloo), p.15-17 http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/earth/waton/watons98.html.

Robbins, E.I., 1998, New roles for an old resource, Ferromanganese nodules assist mine cleanup, Geotimes, 43:14-17.

Robbins, E.I., 1999, Microbial and spectral reflectance techniques to distinguish neutral and acidic drainage: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-118-99, 4p.

Robbins, E.I., 2000, Bacteria and Archaea in acidic environments and a key to morphological identification, Hydrobiologia, 433:61-89.

Robbins, E.I., 2000, Teaching and learning science from Native Americans [abs.], Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 81:S64.

Robbins, E.I., 2001, Manganese oxidation by organisms in Pinal Creek, Arizona, photomicrographs, http://mam.er.usgs.gov/mfs.html.

Robbins, E.I., Anderson, J.E., Cravotta, C.A, III, Nord, G.L., Jr., and Slonecker, E.T., 2000, Multispectral reflection variations in acidic versus near-neutral iron-bearing drainage in Pennsylvania, ICARD 2000, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, 2:1551-1559.

Robbins, E.I., Anderson, J.E., Podwysocki, M.H, and Nord, G.L., Jr., 2001, Seasonal variations in spectral reflectance of microbial flocculates, precipitates, and oil-like films associated with neutral and acidic mine drainage, in Healy, M., Wise, D.L., and Moo-Young, M., eds., Environmental Monitoring and Biodiagnostics of Hazardous Contaminants, Kluwer, p.243-266.

Robbins, E.I., Brant, D.L., and Ziemkiewicz , P.F., 1999, Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township Coal Mine, Somerset County, Penna., 16th Annual Meeting, American Society of Surface Mining and Reclamation, Phoenix, AZ, Proceedings, 2:634-640.

Robbins, E.I., Corley, T.L., and Conklin, M.H., 1999, Manganese removal by the epilithic microbial consortium at Pinal Creek near Globe, Arizona, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Water- Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, 1:247-258.

Robbins, E.I., Cravotta, C.A., III, Savela, C.E., and Nord, G.L., Jr., 1999, Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in “anoxic” limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage, Fuel, 78:259-270.

Robbins, E.I., and Harthill, Michalann, 2003, Life in a copper province, Chapter 17 in Skinner, H.C., and Berger, A.R. (eds.): Geology and Health: New York, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 105-112.

Robbins, E.I., and Hayes, M.A., What’s the red in the water? What’s the black on the rocks? What’s the oil on the surface? http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/microbes/

Robbins, E.I., Rodgers, T.M., Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N, 2000, Ecogeochemistry of the subsurface food web at pH 0-2.5 in Iron Mt., California, U.S.A., Hydrobiologia, 433:15-23.

Sato, Motoaki and Robbins, E.I., 2000, Recovery/removal of metallic elements from acid mine drainage using ozone, ICARD 2000, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, 2:1095-1100.

Sato, Motoaki, Robbins, E.I., and Iberall, A.S., 2000, Thermochemistry of the origin of life and the optimal environment [abs.], American Chemical Society, Division of Geochemistry Abstracts, 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Abstract No. 57.

Robbins, E.I., Kourtidou-Papadeli, C., Iberall, A.S., Nord, G.L., Jr., and Sato, M., in press, From Precambrian Iron-Formation to terraforming Mars: The JIMES Expedition to Santorini: Geomicrobiology Jour.

Robbins, E.I., McSurdy, S.L., and Craddock, T.D., 2000, Hands-on experiments to test for acid mine drainage, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-369, http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of00-369/.